Computer code for
THE GARBAGE CAN MODEL
Michael D. Cohen, James G. March and Johan P. Olsen (1972), A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17 (1): 1-25.
The "Garbage Can" is a fundamental model of organizational decision-making. It is also one of the first publications in social science to come along with a computer code.
This page collects and makes any computer code publicly available, that implements, re-interprets and applies the Garbage Can model.
Please feel free to contribute by sending your code to:
M.D. Cohen, J.G. March and J.P. Olsen: "A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice". Administrative Science Quarterly, 17 (1) 1972: 1-25. Reprinted in J.G. March and R. Weissinger-Baylon (eds.), Ambiguity and Command: Organizational Perspectives on Military Decision-Making; Marshfield (MA), Pitman Publishing Inc. 1986. Reprinted in J.G. March, Decisions and Organizations; Oxford, Basil Blackwell 1988.
The original Fortran 66 code and numerical data for punch-cards. This code has been transcripted manually. CohenMarchOlsen
N. Takahashi: "A Single Garbage Can Model and the Degree of Anarchy in Japanese Firms". Human Relations, 50 (1) 1997: 91-108.
A simplified version that retains many features of the original model. A very short BASIC code. Takahashi
S.K. Lai: "From Organized Anarchy to Controlled Structure: Effects of Planning on the Garbage Can Decision Processes". Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 25 (1) 1998: 103-126. S.K. Lai: "Effects of Planning on the Garbage Can Decision Processes: A Reformulation and Extension". Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 30 (3) 2003: 379-389.
A PASCAL version of the original code and a modification in order to evaluate the effects of planning. Lai
J. Bendor, T.M. Moe and K.W. Shotts: "Recycling the Garbage Can: An Assessment of the Research Program". American Political Science Review, 95 (1) 2001: 169-190.
Bendor, Moe and Shotts pointed to several shortcomings of the original model. They employed a FORTRAN 77 version of the original code. BendorMoeShotts
M.D. Cohen and R. Riolo: "CAR Project: Replication of Eight "Social Science" Simulation Models". Unpublished, 1996.
Cohen and Riolo traslated the original code into FORTRAN 77 and Objective C for the Swarm platform. CohenRiolo
G. Fioretti and A. Lomi: "An Agent-Based Representation of the Garbage Can
Model of Organizational Choice", Journal of Artificial Societies and
Social Simulation, 11 (1) 2008.
"The Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice: An Agent-Based Reconstruction". Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 16 (2) 2008: 192-217.
Fioretti and Lomi reconstructed the original model on NetLogo. FiorettiLomi (NetLogo 2.1.0)
A subsequent version is available, where a few mistakes have been corrected. Thanks to Russell Thomas for updating it. FiorettiLomi (NetLogo 4.1.1)
K.G. Troitzsch: "The Garbage Can Model of Organisational Behaviour: A Theoretical Reconstruction of Some of Its Variants", Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 16 (2) 2008: 218-230.
Troitzsch applied the structuralist concept of theory reconstruction to the Garbage Can model. Troitzsch
G. Fioretti and A. Lomi: "Passing the Buck in the Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice", Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 16 (2) 2010: 113-143.
Fioretti and Lomi extended the original model, adding the possibility of flying away from difficult problems by passing the buck. FiorettiLomi
G. Fioretti and A. Lomi: "Garbage Can Ecologies: An Agent-Based Exploration". In A. Lomi and R. Harrison (Eds.), The Garbage Can Nodel of Organizational Choice: Looking Forward at Forty. Bingley, Emerald Group Publishing 2012.
Fioretti and Lomi enriched the original model with the possibility of endogenous formation of organizations. FiorettiLomi1
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